Integrated circuit

Integrated circuit
Integrated circuit

Integrated circuit

IC is an essential compact form of several electronic component fabricated over a single chip the multi-component consist the active component like Transistor, Diode, FET, MOSFET etc. However it also consist the passive component like Resistor and Capacitor

Advantage of IC

1- It is very small in size
2- It consume very small value of power
3 -Different component are fabricated over a single small chip
4- The connection are made through aluminum over a smaller chip hence power loss is minimize
5- The fabrication of single IC consisting different active and passive component is easy then the fabrication of individual component
6- It is very easy to replace IC from circuit boad

Disadvantage of IC

1-The different active and passive component are fabricated over a small chip however the passive component like coil can not be fabricated in IC
2-If any component of IC is damaged then we have to replace to hole IC

Fabrication of IC

The fabrication of IC is very complicated therefore a proper planning for the IC fabricated is essential the IC fabrication is a multistage process which are discuss as follow.

(A)-Wafer formation

To obtain a wafer also known as subtract we need n or p-type doped silicon cylinder from where several cut are made so that this circular disc are P-type silicon is obtain which is used as wafer in IC fabrication.

(B)-Experimental Growth

In this part of IC fabrication a thin layer of n-type doped ‘Si’ material is growth over wafer called epitaxial layer.


In this part of IC fabrication a vapour mixture of ‘Si’ and free oxygen is passed over the epitaxial layer at 1000 degree Celsius and the colded so that a layer of silicon dioxide is deposited over epitaxial layer.

(D)-Isolation Diffusion

To construct several components over a prepared ‘Si’ wafer photolithography process is used in this process a mass of chemical region which is photosensitive is deposited over silicon dioxide layer.
After photolithography the prepare wafer is send to isolation diffusion chamber where diffusion of different n or p-type take place from these region the output pins are connected in this way an IC is prepared

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